Understanding and preventing police corruption: lessons from the literature

This is an excellent publication on police corruption and ethics.

This work aims to provide a common level of knowledge and understanding of police integrity and corruption, its causes and the efficacy of strategies for its prevention. Other issues of relevance include the links between integrity (and lapses in it) and the development of corruption, and strategies for instilling organisational values and integrity in staff. It is not an aim of this report to provide an assessment of the current extent or nature of police corruption in the United Kingdom. It is hoped this work will provide an essential base for the development of robust prevention strategies in the longer term.

By definition, a literature review is necessarily historical and shaped by available material. The review covers the main English language literature on the issues of police corruption and police ethics over the past 20 years. It includes the sociological and criminological literature, together with a review of the main ‘official inquiries’ from the United States and Australia.

citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download

Investigation into the City of Minneapolis and the Minneapolis Police Department

This is an investigation into discrimination by the Minneapolis Human Rights Department.

Findings of Discrimination

The Minnesota Department of Human Rights finds there is probable cause that the City and MPD engage in a pattern or practice of race discrimination in violation of the Minnesota Human Rights Act.

Specifically, the Minnesota Department of Human Rights finds that MPD engages in a pattern or practice of discriminatory, race-based policing as evidenced by:

• Racial disparities in how MPD officers use force, stop, search, arrest, and cite people of color, particularly Black individuals, compared to white individuals in similar circumstances.

• MPD officers’ use of covert social media to surveil Black individuals and Black organizations, unrelated to criminal activity.

• MPD officers’ consistent use of racist, misogynistic, and disrespectful language. The pattern or practice of discriminatory, race-based policing is caused primarily by an

organizational culture where:

• MPD officers, supervisors, and field training officers receive deficient training, which emphasizes a paramilitary approach to policing that results in officers unnecessarily escalating encounters or using inappropriate levels of force.

• Accountability systems are insufficient and ineffective at holding officers accountable for misconduct.

• Former and current City and MPD leaders have not collectively acted with the urgency, coordination, and intentionality necessary to address racial disparities in policing to improve public safety and increase community trust.

Without fundamental organizational culture changes, reforming MPD’s policies, procedures, and trainings will be meaningless.

mn.gov/mdhr/assets/Investigation into the City of Minneapolis and the Minneapolis Police Department_tcm1061-526417.pdf

Breaking down Washington police reform from this year and last | Issaquah Reporter

This is an interesting article than lists the State of Washington legislative bills and explains the law and its reform impact on policing.

Legislators passed a number of bills responding to concerns around policing. Let’s dig into them.
— Read on www.issaquahreporter.com/news/breaking-down-washington-police-reform-from-this-year-and-last/

Misdemeanor Prosecution | NBER

Communities across the United States are reconsidering the public safety benefits of prosecuting nonviolent misdemeanor offenses. So far there has been little empirical evidence to inform policy in this area. In this paper we report the first estimates of the causal effects of misdemeanor prosecution on defendants’ subsequent criminal justice involvement. We leverage the as-if random assignment of nonviolent misdemeanor cases to Assistant District Attorneys (ADAs) who decide whether a case should move forward with prosecution in the Suffolk County District Attorney’s Office in Massachusetts. These ADAs vary in the average leniency of their prosecution decisions. We find that, for the marginal defendant, nonprosecution of a nonviolent misdemeanor offense leads to large reductions in the likelihood of a new criminal complaint over the next two years. These local average treatment effects are largest for first-time defendants, suggesting that averting initial entry into the criminal justice system has the greatest benefits. We also present evidence that a recent policy change in Suffolk County imposing a presumption of nonprosecution for a set of nonviolent misdemeanor offenses had similar beneficial effects: the likelihood of future criminal justice involvement fell, with no apparent increase in local crime rates.

Founded in 1920, the NBER is a private, non-profit, non-partisan organization dedicated to conducting economic research and to disseminating research findings among academics, public policy makers, and business professionals.
— Read on www.nber.org/papers/w28600

From the VERA Institute

Misdemeanor cases make up over 80 percent of the cases processed by the U.S. criminal justice system, yet we know little about the causal impacts of misdemeanor prosecution. In this talk, we will report the first estimates of the causal effects of misdemeanor prosecution on defendants’ subsequent criminal justice involvement. To do this, we leverage the quasi-random assignment of nonviolent misdemeanor cases to arraigning assistant district attorneys in the Suffolk County District Attorney’s Office in Massachusetts between 2004 and 2018. We find that the marginal prosecuted misdemeanor defendant has a substantially higher risk of being charged with a subsequent criminal complaint, of being prosecuted on that complaint, and of acquiring a criminal record of that complaint, within two years of their initial case. These effects appear to work through a longer time to case disposition, an increased likelihood of acquiring a criminal record of a misdemeanor complaint, and an increased likelihood of a misdemeanor conviction in the current case.

See the VIDEO HERE:

https://www.vera.org/events/neil-a-weiner-research-speaker-series/misdemeanor-prosecution

Law Enforcement Statutory Database

This website is part of the National Conference of State Legislators.

This section has legislative changes for police reform. Not all legislation becomes law. This website might me the best place to search for legislative changes constituting police reform. There is a search section to search different State Laws.

Law Enforcement Statutory Database
— Read on www.ncsl.org/research/civil-and-criminal-justice/law-enforcement-statutory-database.aspx

Through our analysis of the database, the NYCLU found:

The vast majority of police misconduct complaints never result in accountability. *The use of “complaint” in this report refers to each discrete act of misconduct investigated by the CCRB, or what the CCRB calls “allegations.”

• Of the 180,700 complaints investigated by the CCRB since 2000, only two percent received some type of discipline from

the NYPD, and less than one percent received serious discipline, like forfeiting vacation days, suspension, probation, or termination.

• The NYPD overrode the CCRB’s recommendation by imposing a lesser grade of discipline or imposing no discipline in 74 percent of substantiated cases (meaning cases in which

misconduct is found to be improper based on a preponderance of the evidence).

• Only three percent of force complaints and complaints involving a firearm investigated by the CCRB were substantiated.

• 80 percent of substantiated

complaints that received a disciplinary recommendation of “Charges and Specifications” from the CCRB – the most serious recommendation – did not result in serious discipline (forfeiting vacation days, suspension, probation, or termination) from the NYPD.

• Black officers were 33 percent more likely to receive serious discipline than white officers.

www.nyclu.org/sites/default/files/field_documents/nyclu-2021-ccrbdata-report.pdf

Policing the Police: Personnel Management and Police Misconduct

Abstract

Police misconduct is at the top of the public policy agenda, but there is surprisingly little understanding of how police personnel management policies affect police misconduct. Police-civilian interactions in large jurisdictions are, in principle at least, highly regulated. However, these regulations are at least partially counteracted by union contracts and civil service regulations that constrain discipline and other personnel decisions, thereby limiting a city’s ability to manage its police force. This article analyzes police personnel management by bringing forth evidence from a variety of data sources on police personnel practices as well as integrating an existing, but relatively siloed, literature on police misconduct. The empirical findings that emerge are as follows: (1) policing is a surprisingly secure, well-paid job with little turnover prior to retirement age; (2) inexperienced police officers are, all else equal, more likely to commit misconduct and at the same time more likely to receive high-risk assignments; and (3) bad cops are a serious problem, are identifiable, and are rarely removed or disciplined. Taken together, these facts suggest that attempts to regulate police conduct directly or through civil rights litigation are impeded by the inability of those who supervise police to control individual officers through assignments, discipline, and removal. The nexus of compensation, seniority, promotion, discipline, and pension policies that characterize much police personnel management cannot be rationalized under traditional labor and employment contract analysis. However, existing compensation and pension policies could be rationalized if supervisors were empowered to manage police through assignments, penalties, and promotion.

Get the report HERE