Police Killings: Road Map of Research Priorities for Change | RAND

Research Questions

What types of research on killings committed by police officers might help reduce these killings?
What types of data on killings committed by police officers might help reduce these killings?
In this report, RAND Corporation researchers summarize what is currently known about killings committed by police officers in the United States and identify existing evidence about various ways to prevent these killings. A relatively large body of research on these topics exists, but these studies often suffer from methodological shortcomings, largely stemming from the dearth of available data. Recognizing the need for more-rigorous work to guide efforts to reform police — and, more specifically, to reduce police killings — the authors present work focused on the development of a research agenda, or a road map, to reduce police killings. The report, based on an extensive literature review as well as interviews with policing experts, contains a series of recommendations for areas in which research efforts may be most effective in helping inform policymaking and decisionmaking aimed at reducing police killings.

The authors identified six focus areas — foundational issues (such as racial inequities, police culture, and police unions), data and reporting, training, policies, technology, and consequences for officers. Reviewing the priority research topics in each focus area, similar themes emerged, especially around the need for more-extensive and more-systematic data collection and around the use of agency policies to better govern a range of operations related to police violence, such as data collection and reporting and technology.

In this report, the authors use the terms police killings, police violence, and police shootings to describe these types of police behaviors, whether wrongful or not. The authors identify specific instances of these behaviors as misconduct, illegality, wrongful, or excessive when those descriptions apply.
Key Findings

The authors identified research priorities that include the following:

Incorporate a racial lens into studies on reducing police violence and police killings.
Conduct research on aspects of law enforcement that teach and reinforce traditional police culture and norms and on how reform efforts might overcome resistance stemming from culture and norms.
Conduct research on the role of unions in preventing accountability to agency policies and in shaping the outcomes of cases involving police killings.
Explore additional data sources and data that could provide a more reliable representation of a police violence incident, including nonfatal incidents; situational factors surrounding incidents; and the use of technology prior to, during, and after an incident.
Improve data collection on officer consequences after police killings.
Establish meaningful metrics for use across agencies by identifying standard data elements that agencies should collect, and prioritize data accuracy.
Move away from self-reported data on body-worn camera (BWC) use by conducting BWC footage reviews and incorporating alternative data sources for incident reviews.
Add to the overall training evaluation literature to understand the current state of training in the United States and develop a consensus on what training should be in place in all agencies.
Identify the mechanisms by which specific policies reduce police violence, and identify what combination of policies is most effective at reducing police violence.
Undertake research on the overall effects of using other technologies on lethal force.
Study the role of prosecutors in shaping the outcomes of cases involving police killings.
— Read on www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA1525-1.html

Police Race Action Plan | College of Policing

How we’re working to make policing anti-racist and reform or explain race disparities.
The Police Race Action Plan sets out changes across policing to improve outcomes for Black people who work within or interact with policing.

The plan was developed jointly by the College of Policing and the National Police Chiefs’ Council (NPCC), working in collaboration with Black communities and partners – including the National Black Policing Association (NBPA)(opens an external website in the same tab) and an independent scrutiny and oversight board (ISOB). It has the commitment of all 43 chief constables in England and Wales.

It aims to address:

disparities affecting Black people
lower levels of trust and confidence in the police among some Black people
— Read on www.college.police.uk/support-forces/diversity-and-inclusion/action-plan

Public Survey about Defund the Police

At the link below is the latest poll conducted by UMass Amherst about a few topics one being defund the police. There are 3 links to reports. The survey and 2 reports that contain the breakdown of demographics from the survey. Interesting to get some insight into what the public thinks about defund the police.

Toplines and Crosstabs May 2022: LGBTQ issues and education & BLM and police reform | Department of Political Science | UMass Amherst
— Read on polsci.umass.edu/toplines-and-crosstabs-may-2022-lgbtq-issues-and-education-blm-and-police-reform

Breaking Down the 2020 Homicide Spike | Manhattan Institute

In 2020, amid the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic and the protests and riots surrounding the death of George Floyd, America’s homicide rate increased by an astonishing 30%, even as many less serious types of crime held steady or even declined.[1]The purpose of this brief is to describe the…
— Read on www.manhattan-institute.org/breaking-down-the-2020-homicide-spike

Understanding and preventing police corruption: lessons from the literature

This is an excellent publication on police corruption and ethics.

This work aims to provide a common level of knowledge and understanding of police integrity and corruption, its causes and the efficacy of strategies for its prevention. Other issues of relevance include the links between integrity (and lapses in it) and the development of corruption, and strategies for instilling organisational values and integrity in staff. It is not an aim of this report to provide an assessment of the current extent or nature of police corruption in the United Kingdom. It is hoped this work will provide an essential base for the development of robust prevention strategies in the longer term.

By definition, a literature review is necessarily historical and shaped by available material. The review covers the main English language literature on the issues of police corruption and police ethics over the past 20 years. It includes the sociological and criminological literature, together with a review of the main ‘official inquiries’ from the United States and Australia.

citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download