Assessment Colorado Springs Police Department – Use of Force

Using both qualitative and quantitative methods that explore official police data, community and officer surveys and focus groups, and comparisons to peer agencies, we address the following research questions:

 What factors contribute to the use (and severity) of force by CSPD officers?

 How does CSPD use of force policy and training compare to similarly situated (i.e., peer) cities?

 Does the rate and severity of force align with racial/ethnic groups’ representation at risk for having

force used against them by police?

 What are possible explanations for any disparities found in police use and severity of force?

 What factors contribute to the likelihood of officer and citizen injuries?

 How do community members perceive use of force and police-community relations?

 How do CSPD officers perceive police use of force and police-community relations?

 What improvements should be made to CSPD’s use of force policies, training, and data collection

and analysis to meet current best practices?


The investigation uncovered the following key problems in the current state of public safety in St. Louis:

• Racial disparities in the harms inflicted by policing;

• Gaps and inconsistencies in SLMPD policies (especially related to use of force, pedestrian and vehicle stops, and interactions with people experiencing mental health emergencies);

• A need for non-police alternative responders for certain call types;

• Inefficiencies in the allocation of SLMPD patrol staff and resources, which create inequities in service levels;

• A need for accessible, affordable out-of-school time programming for St. Louis youth;

• Insufficient community engagement on the part of the City and SLMPD; and.

• A lack of robust accountability systems for SLMPD.

Investigation into the City of Minneapolis and the Minneapolis Police Department

This is an investigation into discrimination by the Minneapolis Human Rights Department.

Findings of Discrimination

The Minnesota Department of Human Rights finds there is probable cause that the City and MPD engage in a pattern or practice of race discrimination in violation of the Minnesota Human Rights Act.

Specifically, the Minnesota Department of Human Rights finds that MPD engages in a pattern or practice of discriminatory, race-based policing as evidenced by:

• Racial disparities in how MPD officers use force, stop, search, arrest, and cite people of color, particularly Black individuals, compared to white individuals in similar circumstances.

• MPD officers’ use of covert social media to surveil Black individuals and Black organizations, unrelated to criminal activity.

• MPD officers’ consistent use of racist, misogynistic, and disrespectful language. The pattern or practice of discriminatory, race-based policing is caused primarily by an

organizational culture where:

• MPD officers, supervisors, and field training officers receive deficient training, which emphasizes a paramilitary approach to policing that results in officers unnecessarily escalating encounters or using inappropriate levels of force.

• Accountability systems are insufficient and ineffective at holding officers accountable for misconduct.

• Former and current City and MPD leaders have not collectively acted with the urgency, coordination, and intentionality necessary to address racial disparities in policing to improve public safety and increase community trust.

Without fundamental organizational culture changes, reforming MPD’s policies, procedures, and trainings will be meaningless. into the City of Minneapolis and the Minneapolis Police Department_tcm1061-526417.pdf

The Functions of the Police in Modern Society – Egon Bittner

This is a classic book for policing. Chapter VI is one of my favorites – The Capacity To Use Force As The Core Of The Police Role. Chapter VI discusses the “non-negotiably coercible” police use of force. How police sometimes shouldn’t have to negotiate when they are going to use force. The discussion of any police use of force creates an interesting discussion especially now under the current climate.

A .pdf version of the book can be accessed HERE for free at the NCJRS website.

Minnesota’s Attorney General Says the Cop Who Killed Amir Locke Was Defending Himself. So Was Locke.

There is a link in the article to the official Attorney General’s report.

That perplexing situation underlines the hazards of police tactics that aim to prevent violence but often have the opposite effect.
— Read on


External review commissioned

In February 2021, the Minnesota Department of Public Safety (DPS) contracted with Wilder Research to conduct an external review of the state’s response to civil unrest1 that occurred May 26-June 7, 2020, following the murder of George Floyd.

DPS requested that the review:

• Objectively evaluate what the state did well and did not do well.

• Identify actions and options that may have produced different, or possibly better, outcomes.

• Provide recommendations to the Commissioner of Public Safety to assist state and local governmental units, including cities and counties, in responding effectively to potential periods of regional or statewide civil unrest in the future.

Analysis of Potential Conversion from Sheriff’s Office to County Police Department

Executive Summary

Loudoun County, Virginia, engaged the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) to systematically study and evaluate considerations for the County in potentially reorganizing its public safety services by separating some of the law enforcement functions from the sheriff’s office and creating a county police department.

By agreement with the County, IACP’s analysis entails three primary focus areas:

Task 1. Organizational Analysis

Evaluate and consider existing and effective practices for the organizational and governance structure between the Board of Supervisors and the Loudoun County Sheriff’s Office. Include a comparative analysis of the formation of a county police department to provide primary police services.

Task 2. Cost Analysis

Analyze the fiscal costs and impacts of forming and operating a county police department in addition to the statutorily mandated sheriff’s office, including short- and long-term operational costs and facilities needs.

Task 3. Operational Analysis

Develop and present a review of the significant factors to consider in making this potential change and identify potential transition and/or implementation plans, timelines, and challenges.